Warning: fopen(data/now_member_connect.php): failed to open stream: 허가 거부 in /free/home/jspark/html/bbs/lib.php on line 1008

Warning: flock(): supplied argument is not a valid stream resource in /free/home/jspark/html/bbs/lib.php on line 1009

Warning: flock(): supplied argument is not a valid stream resource in /free/home/jspark/html/bbs/lib.php on line 1013

Warning: fclose(): supplied argument is not a valid stream resource in /free/home/jspark/html/bbs/lib.php on line 1014

Warning: fopen(data/now_connect.php): failed to open stream: 허가 거부 in /free/home/jspark/html/bbs/lib.php on line 1008

Warning: flock(): supplied argument is not a valid stream resource in /free/home/jspark/html/bbs/lib.php on line 1009

Warning: flock(): supplied argument is not a valid stream resource in /free/home/jspark/html/bbs/lib.php on line 1013

Warning: fclose(): supplied argument is not a valid stream resource in /free/home/jspark/html/bbs/lib.php on line 1014

 Total 2380articles, Now page is 1 / 119pages
View Article     
Subject    Thatcherism
Name   우탁 
Thatcherism is the system of political thought attributed to the governments of Margaret Thatcher, British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990. Thatcher was unusual in late twentieth century British politics in being a highly ideological leader —she once thumped a copy of Friedrich Hayek's 'The Constitution of Liberty' on the dispatch box in the House of Commons, proclaiming solemnly: "This is what we believe".

Thatcherism is characterised by a free market economy perhaps more closely associated with Victorian Liberalism in the United Kingdom, monetarist economic policy, privatisation of state-owned industries, low taxation, opposition to trade unions, nationalism, centralism, as well as checks on the size of the Welfare State and local government. Thinkers closely associated with Thatcherism include Keith Joseph and Milton Friedman. Thatcherism may be compared with Reaganomics and Rogernomics.

Margaret Thatcher labelled supporters of her beliefs (or Thatcherites) as 'drys', as opposed to the 'wets' (often One Nation conservatives) who opposed her policies.

Following the recession of the early 1980s, the finance sector of Britain's economy began to revive, though it faced a second recession in the late 1980s. The collapse of Britain's manufacturing base, which many blame on Thatcherism, was partly compensated for by the growth in the service industries.

Changes to the power of the trade unions were made gradually, unlike the approach of the Heath Government, and the greatest single confrontation with the unions was the NUM strike of 1984 to 1985 in which the union eventually had to concede. Whether these confrontational tactics ultimately benefited Britain or not, they destroyed the post-war consensus of British politics. In 2001 Peter Mandelson, a member of parliament belonging to the British Labour Party closely associated with Tony Blair, famously declared that "we are all Thatcherites now". Nonetheless, many people continue to use the word "Thatcherism" as a term of abuse.

Towards the end of the 1980s, Thatcherism was stubborn in its opposition to perceived attempts by the European Union to erode British sovereignty. In the famous 1988 Bruges speech, Thatcher declared that "We have not successfully rolled back the frontiers of the state in Britain, only to see them reimposed at a European level, with a European super­state exercising a new dominance from Brussels."

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thatcherism"


1979년 총선거에서 보수당의 승리로 집권한 대처수상은 노동당 정부가 고수해 왔던 각종 국유화와 복지정책 등을 포기하고 민간의 자율적인 경제활동을 중시하는 머니터리즘(monetarism)에 입각한 강력한 경제개혁을 추진했는데, 이러한 대처의 정책을 ‘대처리즘’이라고 한다.

개혁의 내용은 ①복지를 위한 공공지출의 삭감과 세금인하, ②국영기업의 민영화, ③노동조합의 활동규제, ④철저한 통화정책에 입각한 인플레이션 억제, ⑤기업과 민간의 자유로운 활동 보장, ⑥외환관리의 전폐와 빅뱅(big bang) 등을 통한 금융시장의 활성화 등이었다. 그 외에도 대처는 작은 정부의 실현, 산학협동(産學協同) 중심의 교육정책, 유럽통합 반대 등의 정책을 추진하였다.

이러한 사회·경제적인 개혁정책의 추진뿐만 아니라, 당시의 영국 사회의 침체되고 무기력한 상황을 ‘영국병’이라고 진단하고, 이를 극복하기 위해서는 전 사회적인 의식개혁이 필요하다고 하였다. 결과적으로 인플레이션을 극복하고 경기를 회복하는 데는 성과가 있었으나 더욱 심각해진 실업문제로 국민들의 불만이 고조되고 대처리즘을 비판하는 소리가 높아지기도 했다.

영국에는 이러한 사회적 분위기가 그대로 반영된 ‘대처세대’ 또는 ‘대처의 아이들’이라는 용어가 있다. 이들은 대처수상 집권하에서 기초교육을 받으며 자라난 10대들로 정치에 대한 무관심, 흡연과 알코올 의존, 비합리적 경향 등을 특징으로 하는데, 그 이면에는 고실업으로 인한 자신들의 불확실한 미래와 급격히 증가한 부모의 이혼과 가족해체 등의 원인이 있었다.

백과사전 중에서

박종성 :: 감사. 부지런하군요.  [2005/11/18]
Name :    Memo : Pass :  
 Prev    Remains 각주 및 발제글 보기
박종성
  2005/11/18 
 Next    음악듣고 가사 익히기 + sonnet 답지 +정보검색 [2]
박종성
  2005/11/16 



Copyright 1999-2022 Zeroboard / skin by lifesay